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The Devil in History: Communism, Fascism, and Some Lessons of the Twentieth Century 1 , eBook Kindle


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Número de páginas: 336 páginas Dicas de vocabulário: Habilitado Configuração de fonte: Habilitado
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The Devil in History is a provocative analysis of the relationship between communism and fascism. Reflecting the author’s personal experiences within communist totalitarianism, this is a book about political passions, radicalism, utopian ideals, and their catastrophic consequences in the twentieth century’s experiments in social engineering. Vladimir Tismaneanu brilliantly compares communism and fascism as competing, sometimes overlapping, and occasionally strikingly similar systems of political totalitarianism. He examines the inherent ideological appeal of these radical, revolutionary political movements, the visions of salvation and revolution they pursued, the value and types of charisma of leaders within these political movements, the place of violence within these systems, and their legacies in contemporary politics.

The author discusses thinkers who have shaped contemporary understanding of totalitarian movements—people such as Hannah Arendt, Raymond Aron, Isaiah Berlin, Albert Camus, François Furet, Tony Judt, Ian Kershaw, Leszek Kolakowski, Richard Pipes, and Robert C. Tucker. As much a theoretical analysis of the practical philosophies of Marxism-Leninism and Fascism as it is a political biography of particular figures, this book deals with the incarnation of diabolically nihilistic principles of human subjugation and conditioning in the name of presumably pure and purifying goals. Ultimately, the author claims that no ideological commitment, no matter how absorbing, should ever prevail over the sanctity of human life. He comes to the conclusion that no party, movement, or leader holds the right to dictate to the followers to renounce their critical faculties and to embrace a pseudo-miraculous, a mystically self-centered, delusional vision of mandatory happiness.

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“Vladimir Tismaneanu combines enormous erudition, sharp insight, and unique personal experience in this wide-ranging essay on the problems of totalitarianism in the twentieth century. The Devil in History is mandatory reading for those interested in the crucial questions of morality and politics posed by the comparison of Nazism and Stalinism.” —Norman M. Naimark, Robert and Florence McDonnel Professor of Eastern European Studies, Stanford University



The Devil in History is a lengthy essay on the intellectual origins, crimes, and failures of the twentieth century’s worst totalitarian types of regimes, fascism and communism. There are few scholars as conversant with this material, or as able to explain it as well, as Vladimir Tismaneanu, who gives a good sense of why utopian ideals meant to overcome the ills of capitalist, bourgeois democracy went so sensationally wrong and produced such massive evil.” —Daniel Chirot, co-author of Why Not Kill Them All? The Logic and Prevention of Mass Political Murder



"The Devil in History is a very important work of intellectual history that considers a basic question of the twentieth century and represents vast and ecumenical learning and well-considered personal experience. It has moments of indubitable brilliance." —Timothy Snyder, author of The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999



“In his revealing new study, Vladimir Tismaneanu traces the intellectual origins of the murderous twentieth century. The focus is on the ideologies of Europe’s totalitarian regimes identified most prominently with the names Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler. Although these characters were amoral and perhaps even psychopathic killers, the author rightly insists that such labels do not explain the popular appeal of the dictators, who were worshipped as if they were gods by crowds of true believers. Even after 1945, new Communist leaders pursued quests for utopia and mounted crusades of their own, all of them doomed to fail. Tismaneanu provides a compelling and convincing account of how this monumental tragedy came to pass.” —Robert Gellately, author of Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe


Detalhes do produto

  • Formato: eBook Kindle
  • Tamanho do arquivo: 1258 KB
  • Número de páginas: 336 páginas
  • Editora: University of California Press; Edição: 1 (28 de setembro de 2012)
  • Vendido por: Amazon Servicos de Varejo do Brasil Ltda
  • Idioma: Inglês
  • ASIN: B008VTJ9QS
  • Leitura de texto: Habilitado
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  • Dicas de vocabulário: Habilitado
  • Leitor de tela: Compatível
  • Configuração de fonte: Habilitado
  • Avaliação média: Seja o primeiro a avaliar este item
  • Lista de mais vendidos da Amazon: #79,993 entre os mais vendidos na Loja Kindle (Conheça os 100 mais vendidos na Loja Kindle)

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Amazon.com: 4.2 de 5 estrelas 15 avaliações
Esta avaliação foi considerada útil por 3 de 3 pessoa(s):
4.0 de 5 estrelas The Devil in History is an excellent analysis of both communism and fascism and is particularly ... 11 de janeiro de 2015
Por Robert Villegas - Publicada na Amazon.com
Formato: Capa dura Compra verificada
This book continues the tradition of Hannah Arendt. Vladimir Tismăneanu is a Romanian and American political scientist and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. His book examines Fascism and Communism by drawing out their fundamental similarities and refuting their apologists. Tismaneanu's journey from Neo-Marxism to classical liberalism has given him a unique understanding of the fallacies of totalitarian systems. His writings reveal a mind without the biases typical of communist apologists and has provided an honest and direct appraisal.

The title of this book betrays the content. I had thought it would compare the essentials of communism and fascism to those of Christianity. I found that this issue was only a sub-text of the book and that the thrust was a thorough refutation of the tenets of Leninism and Stalinism and its futile effort to bring about the history that Marx claimed was inevitable.

The Devil in History is an excellent analysis of both communism and fascism and is particularly interesting, not only because it exposes the flaws of both Leninism and Nazism, but also because it connects them to the aftermath of the revolution of 1989 which brought the end of the Cold War. What Tismaneanu exposes is the absence of a voice that can carry "liberated" east Europeans into the world of civil society. This voice has yet to appear.
Esta avaliação foi considerada útil por 17 de 19 pessoa(s):
3.0 de 5 estrelas Writing style hides many excellent insights 6 de julho de 2013
Por Robert Ashton - Publicada na Amazon.com
Formato: Capa dura Compra verificada
Few are better qualified to "map and explain ... the "ideological storms" of a century second to none in violence, hubris, ruthlessness, and human sacrifices" as author Vladimir Tismaneanu. Professor of Comparative Politics at the University of Maryland, Tismaneanu was born in Communist Romania (his parents had fought in the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War) and he experienced first-hand the collapse of the Soviet system in Eastern Europe. Indeed, there is much of interest in this book particularly in highlighting the commonalities between Fascism and Communism and in his warnings of the dangers of resurgent nationalism. However, repetition, a very turgid style of writing and assumptions of familiarity with writers and critics from within Eastern Europe make sections of the book hard going, even for the reasonably well-informed reader.
The book, although looking at both Fascism and Marxism, is heavily weighted towards the Soviets. This is probably due to the author's own experiences but also to the fact that much of the excess of the Soviet experiment is only recently being fully explored. As Tismaneanu says: "the comparison between Communism and Fascism has been fundamentally tainted ... both by the claim of the original innocence of Leninism ... and by anti-Fascism's long-standing, resounding failure to denounce the murderousness and illiberality of Communist regimes." Some of this imbalance has been addressed by recent books such as "Lenin, Stalin and Hitler" by Robert Gellately and "Bloodlands" by Timothy Snyder, both quoted favorably by Tismaneanu. Although the focus on Communism is understandable I think more analysis of the Fascist regimes, including perhaps Spain and Portugal, would have been enlightening.
His core argument is that both Fascism and Communism had a shared goal of re-shaping the world through the destruction of modern liberal democracy and to, in essence, "build Heaven on Earth". Although one was based on racial purity and the other on class purity, both felt free to persecute and kill almost without constraint. Although the Marxists were clearly atheist and one can debate the religious position of Fascism: "(i)n fact, they were political religions, with their own rituals, prophets, saints, zealots, inquisitors, traitors, renegades, heretics, apostates, and holy writ." He highlights one of the major differences as being the importance and dominance of "the party" in Communism, which could survive changes in leadership (although the leader was very important), compared to the cult of the individual in Fascism. Obviously this aided the longevity of the Communist states but what would have happened in Germany or Italy is debatable. Both these regimes lost the war and a leadership transition never occurred.
This idea of the religious nature of the two philosophers repeats throughout the book, often really adding nothing new. This repetition is one of the issues I have with this book. The other major problem is the writing style. When I come across this type of writing from academics, I often wonder whether it comes from erudition or obfuscation. Whatever the cause, be warned that you will regularly come across sentences like this: "In other words, the historicity of Marxism, the moment of the Marxist self-consciousness was central to reinventing the true value of negativity as a new space for the affirmation of particularity against the spurious universality glorified by the system." (Author's italics)
In the end, Tismaneanu decries the totalitarian regimes for their abandonment of simple, established distinctions between good and evil. He says of the collapse of the Soviet system: "the core value restored, cherished and promoted by the revolutions of 1989 was common sense." This book contains a lot of very good analysis and draws many sensible and enlightening lessons from a terrible time. It is a pity that it is written in such a way as to discourage a wider readership.
Esta avaliação foi considerada útil por 1 de 1 pessoa(s):
5.0 de 5 estrelas a must read 10 de setembro de 2015
Por Anca Butcaru - Publicada na Amazon.com
Formato: Capa comum Compra verificada
Amazing book, thorough analysis and coverage of the rest of the literature. A must read for anyone interested in the history of the XX century but most importantly in understanding the ideology, logic and the unravel of tyrant human behavior. A wonderful X-Ray of Stalinism, Marxism, Hitlerism explained from different perspectives: historical, psychological, human behavior, ideological and sociological. A wholistic approach on the attrocities done by Stalin, Hitler, and other communist leaders, in their attempt to form a new order of society.
Esta avaliação foi considerada útil por 4 de 5 pessoa(s):
4.0 de 5 estrelas A Bit Disappointing 25 de julho de 2013
Por John E. Mack - Publicada na Amazon.com
Formato: eBook Kindle Compra verificada
This is a well-researched book by an author who knows Eastern Europe, and particularly Romania, very well. Despite its many virtues, the book is a bit a of a disappointment. For one thing, in spite of the cover, the book says almost nothing about Nazism or Fascism -- even though Romania and Hungary were German allies in World War II and have displayed some latent Fascist sympathies after the fall of Communism. Rather, the book is principally about Russian Communism and its effects on Eastern Europe. It has some very good chapters on Lenin and the links between his policies and the murderous years that followed his seizure of power. Tismaneanu is surely right that most of Stalin's atrocities have their origin in Lenin's policies. One of the interesting things about the book is Tismaneanu's ambivalence. Sometimes he sees Karl Marx as a well-intentioned reformer whose program was perverted by Lenin into a blood-stained cult. Sometimes he draws a direct line between Marx's theories and the horrors of Russian Communism. The title is also a little misleading. Certainly Hitler and Stalin were devils, and one does not expect a sophisticated political thinker to be literal about the "devil" business. But one does expect, with a title like that, to have the author trace a political evil from its roots through to its manifestations, and Timaneanu really does not do that much. Part of the problem is organizational. If his point is to show how the evil seeds sown by Karl Marx resulted in the rotten fruit of Stalin -- and that is part of his point -- he needs to organize his thesis more coherently. This book is, after all, more philosophy than political science or history, and as such, demands more focus.

But I am being too negative. This book is a very good example of an insider's reflection on what went wrong in the war of ideas that became Eastern Europe in the 20th century. As such, it is a useful guide to how the thinking of its intellectuals could lead to such a tragic end, and a cautionary tale about how it might happen again.
Esta avaliação foi considerada útil por 2 de 3 pessoa(s):
5.0 de 5 estrelas a must read for all who need a refresher on this past century's terrible politics , wars and salvation by democracies. 10 de dezembro de 2013
Por Robert D. Kinder - Publicada na Amazon.com
Formato: eBook Kindle Compra verificada
Get your dictionary out to make sure you know meaning of many words and perhaps an international language one as well. A great way to review the history of the two most immoral governmental institutions in history. A five out of five star book.
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