- Capa comum: 584 páginas
- Editora: Springer; Edição: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015 (18 de novembro de 2016)
- Idioma: Inglês
- ISBN-10: 3319349775
- ISBN-13: 978-3319349770
- Dimensões do produto: 17,8 x 25,4 cm
- Peso de envio: 971 g
- Avaliação média: Seja o primeiro a avaliar este item
Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (Inglês) Capa Comum – 17 nov 2016
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The Bible's grand narrative about Israel's Exodus from Egypt is central to Biblical religion, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim identity, and the formation of the academic disciplines studying the ancient Near East. It has also been a pervasive theme in artistic and popular imagination. Israel's Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective is a pioneering work surveying this tradition in unprecedented breadth, combining archaeological discovery, quantitative methodology, and close literary reading. Archaeologists, Egyptologists, Biblical Scholars, Computer Scientists, Geoscientists and other experts contribute their diverse approaches in a novel, transdisciplinary consideration of ancient topography, Egyptian and Near Eastern parallels to the Exodus story, the historicity of the Exodus, the interface of the Exodus question with archaeological fieldwork on emergent Israel, the formation of biblical literature, and the cultural memory of the Exodus in ancient Israel and beyond.
This edited volume contains research presented at the groundbreaking symposium "Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination" held in 2013 at the Qualcomm Institute of the University of California, San Diego. The combination of 44 contributions by an international group of scholars from diverse disciplines makes this the first such transdisciplinary study of ancient text and history. In the original conference and with this new volume, revolutionary media, such as a 3D immersive virtual reality environment, impart innovative, Exodus-based research to a wider audience. Out of archaeology, ancient texts, science, and technology emerge an up-to-date picture of the Exodus for the 21st Century, and a new standard for collaborative research.
Sobre o Autor
Thomas Evan Levy is Distinguished Professor and holds the Norma Kershaw Chair in the Archaeology of Ancient Israel and Neighboring Lands at the University of California, San Diego. He is a member of the Department of Anthropology and Judaic Studies Program and leads the Cyber-archaeology research group at the Qualcomm Institute, California Center of Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2). Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Levy is a Levantine field archaeologist with interests in the role of technology, especially early mining and metallurgy, on social evolution from the beginnings of sedentism and the domestication of plants and animals in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (ca. 7500 BCE) to the rise of the first historic Levantine state level societies in the Iron Age (ca. 1200 – 500 BCE). A Fellow of the Explorers Club, Levy won the 2011 Lowell Thomas Award for “Exploring the World’s Greatest Mysteries.” Levy has been the principal investigator of many interdisciplinary archaeological field projects in Israel and Jordan that have been funded by the National Geographic Society, the National Endowment for the Humanities, National Science Foundation and other organizations. Tom also conducts ethnoarchaeological research in India. Levy, his wife Alina Levy and the Sthapathy traditional craftsmen from the village of Swamimalai co-authored the book Masters of Fire - Hereditary Bronze Casters of South India. Bochum: German Mining Museum, 2008). Tom has published 10 books and several hundred scholarly articles. Levy’s most recent book is entitled Historical Biblical Archaeology – The New Pragmatism (London: Equinox Publishers, 2010 that in 2011 won the ‘best scholarly book’ from Biblical Archaeology Society (Washington, DC). Levy and his colleague Mohammad Najjar recently won Biblical Archaeology Review’s ‘Best BAR Article’ for “Condemned to the Mines: Copper Production & Christian Persecution.”
Thomas Schneider is Professor of Egyptology and Near Eastern Studies at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, a position he assumed in 2007. He studied at Zurich, Basel and Paris, earning a Master's degree (Lizentiat), a doctorate and a habilitation in Egyptology at the University of Basel. He was a Visiting Professor at the University of Vienna in 1999 and at the University of Heidelberg in 2003-4. From 2001 to 2005, he was a Research Professor of the Swiss National Science Foundation at the University of Basel and from 2005 to 2007, Professor and holder of the Chair in Egyptology at the University of Wales, Swansea. He was a visiting scholar at New York University in 2006 and at the University of California, Berkeley, in 2012, as well as an Associate Professor (Status only) in the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto (2010–2012) and an Affiliate Professor in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization, University of Washington (2009-12). He has published five self-authored books and more than 100 journal articles, book chapters and book reviews and edited or co-edited another five books in his main areas of research: Egyptian interconnections with the Levant and the Near East, Egyptian history and chronology and Egyptian historical phonology. His current research project is on the history of Egyptology in Nazi Germany. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Egyptian History, as well as editor of Near Eastern Archaeology. He was the editor-in-chief of "Culture and History of the Ancient Near East" (2006-2013) and area editor history for the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. He also serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, as well as the advisory boards of "Egypt and the Levant" and Lingua Aegyptia.
A native New Yorker (born at Mount Sinai hospital), William H. C. Propp is the Harriet and Louis Bookheim Professor of Biblical Hebrew and Related Languages at the University of California, San Diego, where he has taught since 1983 for the Departments of Literature and History and for the Judaic Studies Program; he has also been a visiting professor of Religious Studies at Dartmouth College. His wide-ranging approach to the Hebrew Bible synthesizes philology, cultural anthropology, folklore studies, psychology, history, linguistics and literary criticism. Having published on a multitude of topics in both scholarly and popular venues, he is best known for his two-volume, 1600-page reference commentary on the Book of Exodus in the Anchor Bible series (Doubleday 1999, 2006).
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The book has section about how to generate virtual experiences and a section about the possibility of Tsunami. I am quite sceptical about those. As an example of other solutions, nobody has given thought about a floating thick reed mat (moving islands) that the wind could blow over the Reed sea to a narrow strait that could form a bridge (like a pontoon bridge), that could go over a considerable sea depth. I may be wrong but a wider variety of solution possibilities should be provided and inspected in a book like this next time
If there's anything close to a consensus among this diverse group of authors, it's that the Exodus story is a dim reflection of whatever event inspired it. James Hoffmeier would not agree, and Gary Rendsburg and Brad Sparks might not either, but most of the others do, despite disagreeing on many of the details.
Manfred Bietak shows that there were Semitic-speaking settlers in the Nile Delta in the late New Kingdom and argues that details in the Exodus narrative reflects the geography of that place and time fairly accurately (though his study should be compared with Grabbe's). Other connections to Egypt in the narrative support his conclusion, such as the Egyptian-influenced design of the Ark of the Covenant, pointed out by Scott Noegel, and the Egyptian etymologies of several characters' names, which were established long ago. Yet very little else about the story, especially not the subsequent conquest of Canaan, fits the evidence we have.
Many of these authors discuss the Exodus story as literature. Sparks' paper points out that many of the motifs found in the Exodus story are found in Egyptian texts, both fiction and nonfiction, and that these texts' relationship to the Exodus has not been sufficiently studied. Susan Tower Hollis points out other similarities between Egyptian stories and biblical ones. Rendsburg suggests that the Exodus story took preexisting Egyptian motifs about feats of magic and inverted them to show that the Israelites, by the power of Yahweh, beat the Egyptians at their own game. Sparks seems to favor the idea that many of the Egyptian motifs were taken from a historical event that inspired the Exodus story. Because many of these motifs are widespread in Egyptian culture and predate any credible date for the Exodus, I find it more plausible that the biblical versions of them are all Israelite reworkings of Egyptian ideas, just as the feats of magic are.
More broadly, many of the authors discuss the Exodus as a cultural memory, a faintly remembered event that is reshaped in order to define the culture's identity. Jan Assmann makes the point that all the cultures that suffered the Bronze Age Collapse, including Greece and Egypt, turned their pre-collapse pasts into cultural memories. William Dever, despite grousing about the concept, defines it excellently: "In the end, 'cultural memory' is about who we think we are. And that—not the bare facts—is what matters. We can be entirely wrong about what really happened to us, about the past; but what we make of the past as remembered is what may come to define us." And although he and Avraham Faust disagree on particular points, their papers show us the closest thing there is to a scholarly consensus about the origin of Israel. The nation formed from several groups of West Semitic people during the Bronze Age Collapse. Most of those people were natives of Canaan or nearby areas, but a portion of their population could have migrated out of the Nile Delta. Their descendants eventually came to envision that Egyptian past as the story of the entire nation and turned it into a dramatic narrative of their escape from captivity and the triumph of their god.
This book is also a fairly definitive collection of evidence on several subtopics. Lawrence Geraty lists nearly all the dates that scholars have proposed for the Exodus. Hoffmeier and Stephen Moshier compare the Exodus itinerary to the geography of the region. Several papers discuss the eruption of the Thera volcano, which is often invoked to explain the plagues of Egypt without resorting to the supernatural. Yet more than one author points out that if you look for a scientific explanation for miraculous events, you misunderstand the nature of the story. Several other papers examine how Jewish, Christian, and Muslim authors interpreted the Exodus story once it had taken its canonical shape.
This book is the product of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) conference on the Exodus on May 31-June 3, 2013. This was the first international scientific conference on the Exodus ever held, and brought together the world's foremost Egyptologist (Jan Assmann), the leading Biblical archaeologist (William Dever) and Israel's top archaeologist (Israel Finkelstein). Many of their most esteemed colleagues, such as Manfred Bietak, Lawrence T. Geraty, Avraham Faust, Aren Maeir, and James Hoffmeier, were also presenters. Videos are on websites of UCSD, Biblical Archaeology Review, and YouTube.
More than 50 scholars from around the globe presented papers. UCSD archaeoloigist Thomas E. Levy hosted the conference, officially sponsored by UCSD, and welcomed by the Chancellor and other campus officials (see the viedos). Levy has been in the forefront of advanced cyber-archaeology work and has uncovered surprising archaeological evidence of a major Solomonic-era copper mining industry in the Negev and Arabah.
Both sides of the volcanic Thera theory of the Exodus are represented, including respected geoscientists and critics. Radiocarbon dating is represented by the Oxford lab and challenged by a leading critic. American Wellhausenist JEDP documentarians are opposed by European "supplementarians" and other divergent views. The latest in computer-driven "cyber-archaeology" techniques were applied to 3-D simulations of the Exodus event -- much to the chagrin of some scholars who seem to object to physical scientists treating the Exodus as real not myth. There are little mini-debates in the pages of the book between the scholars.
One chapter reviews Egyptology literature for discussions of possible Exodus material and finds that dozens of leading Egyptologists have been publishing the reputedly "nonexistent" Egyptian documents on the Exodus over the last two centuries. Apparently it was in 1844 that the first scholar pointed to references to the Exodus in Egyptian monuments, in this case the famed Rosetta Stone that seemingly relate to the Exodus. What appear to be ancient Egyptian color pictures of the Parting of the Red Sea are printed in two chapters. Does this support the Exodus as an historical event or is this a strange Egyptian religious concept? What may be the cause of such novel imagery? Why has it taken so long for scholars to gather up in one place and do something about all of this provocative but neglected Egyptian material that might possibly relate to the Exodus?
Jan Assmann concedes that the consensus view of the Exodus as myth cannot be sustained any longer and that the Exodus cannot be dismissed as pure myth. Egyptologist Thomas Schneider presents some late Egyptian texts that seem to be parallels for the Passover, and is one of the main editors of the proceedings. Manfred Bietak is the excavator of Tell el-Dab'a in the Biblical land of Goshen in Egypt which he began 50 years ago. Bietak defends the historicity of the Exodus against Donald Redford and other skeptics. Redford in his chapter however admits a possible historical basis for the Exodus in the expulsion of the Hyksos. Dever also surprisingly asserts that some Israelites, not Canaanites or vague "West Semitics," were indeed slaves in Egypt for "centuries."
Geraty presents new evidence for the Early Date of the Exodus. Faust seems to be one of the few mainstream archaeologists who treat the Conquest of Canaan as a possible historical event not a myth, as seen in his passing comments. This may be a new development since the breakdown of the Albright model of the Conquest and other traditional military scenarios long abandoned. The Conquest may be put back on the table again for academic consideration.
There is much more to the book than can written about in a short review. Many color photos make the volume attractive and explain the rather steep price (look for discounts!). Maps and indexes are helpful tools to understanding the events and arguments.