- Capa comum: 402 páginas
- Editora: Routledge; Edição: 8 (1 de dezembro de 2014)
- Idioma: Inglês
- ISBN-10: 0415739020
- ISBN-13: 978-0415739023
- Dimensões do produto: 15,6 x 2,3 x 23,4 cm
- Peso do produto: 567 g
The Adult Learner the Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development (Inglês) Capa Comum – 11 jul 2016
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Sobre o Autor
Malcolm S. Knowles was one of the nation’s leading authorities on adult education and training. He was the founding executive director of the Adult Education Association, and Professor of Adult and Community College Education at North Carolina State University.
Elwood F. Holton III, Ed.D., is the Jones S. Davis Distinguished Professor of Human Resource Development and Adult Education at Louisiana State University.
Richard A. Swanson is Professor Emeritus of Organization Learning, Policy, and Development at the University of Minnesota.
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Pedagogy involves the art and science of teaching children (Knowles et al 2015, 19) while andragogy involves the art and science of helping adults learn (Knowles et al 2015, 40). Pedagogy is focused on the decision of the teacher and gives the teacher full responsibility and authority, while placing a submissive role on the learners (Knowles et al 2015, 41). Pedagogy and andragogy both involve the art and science of teaching and that is the biggest similarity that they share.
Pedagogy and andragogy involve six assumptions about the learners: the need to know, the learner’s self-concept, the role of experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, and motivation (Knowles et al 2015, 41-47). However, these six assumptions are different with each model.
Concerning the need to know, in pedagogy, “learners only need to know that they must learn what the teacher teaches” (Knowles et al 2015, 41) while in andragogy, “adults need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it” (Knowles et al 2015, 43). Pedagogy involves a need to learn because if they do not, they will not pass and move on (Knowles et al 2015, 41). Adults focus on the positive and negative effects that learning and not learning something will have on them (Knowles et al 2015, 43). Adults are not required to learn like children are, and often pose the question, “why should I learn this?” (Ricketson, Andragogy part 2 video).
The learner’s self-concept of pedagogy involves the teacher believing that the learner is dependent upon the teacher (Knowles et al 2015, 41). The andragogical model states that adults are responsible for the decision hat they make for their own lives (Knowles et al 2015, 43). Adults and children differ in this area, because an adult does not want to be treated like he is a child and an adult learner needs to be treated as such, while a child can be treated like a child.
In the pedagogical model, the role of experience of the learner is of little value as a resource for learning (Knowles et al 2015, 42). In the andragogical model, the learner’s experience has much more importance in the classroom. More experience for adults also means that there are many more differences than there may be amongst a group of children (Knowles et al 2015, 45). “For many kinds of learning, the richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves” (Knowles et al 2015, 45). While a group of adults with varied differences and experiences may cause turmoil, it also may bring others closer together, as each member can bring different qualities and experience to the group.
Readiness to learn in pedagogy involves the learner becoming ready to learn what the teacher tells him in order that he may pass and get promoted to the next grade (Knowles et al 2015, 42). The andragogical model involves the adults becoming ready to learn the things that they need to know and do so that they might cope with situations that they will experience in life (Knowles et al 2015, 45). “The critical implication of this assumption is the importance of timing learning experiences to coincide with those developmental tasks” (Knowles et al 2015, 45). Andragogy seeks to teach adults how to handle each phase and how to direct themselves through life.
The orientation to learning of pedagogy involves learners having a subject-centered focus to learning in that they organize learning experiences based on the logic of the subject matter (Knowles et al 2015, 43). The orientation to learning of andragogy is focused on life-centered learning rather than subject-centered like children (Knowles et al 2015, 46). The life-centered orientation to learning involves adults focusing on learning tools that will help them to travel through life.
The motivation to learn for the pedagogical model involves learners being motivated by external motivators such as their parents, the desire to get good grades, or the approval or disapproval of someone (Knowles et al 2015, 43). The motivation to learn for the andragogical model involves the adult being responsive to some external motivators, but mostly being motivated by internal motivators (Knowles et al 2015, 47). The adult is harder on himself and more focused on what is going on internally than what is going on externally.
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