- Capa comum: 383 páginas
- Editora: Random House Trade; Edição: Reprint (7 de janeiro de 2014)
- Idioma: Inglês
- ISBN-10: 081298160X
- ISBN-13: 978-0812981605
- Dimensões do produto: 13,2 x 2,3 x 20,3 cm
- Peso do produto: 272 g
- Avaliação média: 16 avaliações de clientes
- Lista de mais vendidos da Amazon: no. 5,958 em Livros (Conheça o Top 100 na categoria Livros)
The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business (Inglês) Capa Comum – 6 jan 2014
Há uma nova edição deste item:
Leia Enquanto Enviamos
Compre e comece a ler a amostra digital deste livro enquanto espera ele chegar. Saiba mais aqui.
Frequentemente comprados juntos
Clientes que compraram este item também compraram
Faça download dos Aplicativos de Leitura Kindle Gratuitos e comece a ler eBooks Kindle nos mais populares smartphones, tablets e computadores pessoais. Para enviar o link de download para seu smartphone por SMS, use o formato internacional sem espaços (Código Internacional+DDD+Número. Exemplo: +551199999999)
Para receber o link de download digite seu celular:
eBooks novos para sua biblioteca digital. Veja aqui
Detalhes do produto
Descrições do Produto
Sobre o Autor
Trecho. © Reimpressão autorizada. Todos os direitos reservados
THE HABIT LOOP
How Habits Work
In the fall of 1993, a man who would upend much of what we know about habits walked into a laboratory in San Diego for a scheduled appointment. He was elderly, a shade over six feet tall, and neatly dressed in a blue button-down shirt. His thick white hair would have inspired envy at any fiftieth high school reunion. Arthritis caused him to limp slightly as he paced the laboratory's hallways, and he held his wife's hand, walking slowly, as if unsure about what each new step would bring.
About a year earlier, Eugene Pauly, or "E.P." as he would come to be known in medical literature, had been at home in Playa del Rey, preparing for dinner, when his wife mentioned that their son, Michael, was coming over.
"Who's Michael?" Eugene asked.
"Your child," said his wife, Beverly. "You know, the one we raised?"
Eugene looked at her blankly. "Who is that?" he asked.
The next day, Eugene started vomiting and writhing with stomach cramps. Within twenty-four hours, his dehydration was so pronounced that a panicked Beverly took him to the emergency room. His temperature started rising, hitting 105 degrees as he sweated a yellow halo of perspiration onto the hospital's sheets. He became delirious, then violent, yelling and pushing when nurses tried to insert an IV into his arm. Only after sedation was a physician able to slide a long needle between two vertebra in the small of his back and extract a few drops of cerebrospinal fluid.
The doctor performing the procedure sensed trouble immediately. The fluid surrounding the brain and spinal nerves is a barrier against infection and injury. In healthy individuals, it is clear and quick flowing, moving with an almost silky rush through a needle. The sample from Eugene's spine was cloudy and dripped out sluggishly, as if filled with microscopic grit. When the results came back from the laboratory, Eugene's physicians learned why he was ill: He was suffering from viral encephalitis, a relatively common disease that produces cold sores, fever blisters, and mild infections on the skin. In rare cases, however, the virus can make its way into the brain, inflicting catastrophic damage as it chews through the delicate folds of tissue where our thoughts, dreams-and according to some, souls- reside.
Eugene's doctors told Beverly there was nothing they could do to counter the damage already done, but a large dose of antiviral drugs might prevent it from spreading. Eugene slipped into a coma and for ten days was close to death. Gradually, as the drugs fought the disease, his fever receded and the virus disappeared. When he finally awoke, he was weak and disoriented and couldn't swallow properly. He couldn't form sentences and would sometimes gasp, as if he had momentarily forgotten how to breathe. But he was alive.
Eventually, Eugene was well enough for a battery of tests. The doctors were amazed to find that his body-including his nervous system- appeared largely unscathed. He could move his limbs and was responsive to noise and light. Scans of his head, though, revealed ominous shadows near the center of his brain. The virus had destroyed an oval of tissue close to where his cranium and spinal column met. "He might not be the person you remember," one doctor warned Beverly. "You need to be ready if your husband is gone."
Eugene was moved to a different wing of the hospital. Within a week, he was swallowing easily. Another week, and he started talking normally, asking for Jell-O and salt, flipping through television channels and complaining about boring soap operas. By the time he was discharged to a rehabilitation center five weeks later, Eugene was walking down hallways and offering nurses unsolicited advice about their weekend plans.
"I don't think I've ever seen anyone come back like this," a doctor told Beverly. "I don't want to raise your hopes, but this is amazing."
Beverly, however, remained concerned. In the rehab hospital it became clear that the disease had changed her husband in unsettling ways. Eugene couldn't remember which day of the week it was, for instance, or the names of his doctors and nurses, no matter how many times they introduced themselves. "Why do they keep asking me all these questions?" he asked Beverly one day after a physician left his room. When he finally returned home, things got even stranger. Eugene didn't seem to remember their friends. He had trouble following conversations. Some mornings, he would get out of bed, walk into the kitchen, cook himself bacon and eggs, then climb back under the covers and turn on the radio. Forty minutes later, he would do the same thing: get up, cook bacon and eggs, climb back into bed, and fiddle with the radio. Then he would do it again.
Alarmed, Beverly reached out to specialists, including a researcher at the University of California, San Diego, who specialized in memory loss. Which is how, on a sunny fall day, Beverly and Eugene found themselves in a nondescript building on the university's campus, holding hands as they walked slowly down a hallway. They were shown into a small exam room. Eugene began chatting with a young woman who was using a computer.
"Having been in electronics over the years, I'm amazed at all this," he said, gesturing at the machine she was typing on. "When I was younger, that thing would have been in a couple of six-foot racks and taken up this whole room."
The woman continued pecking at the keyboard. Eugene chuckled.
"That is incredible," he said. "All those printed circuits and diodes and triodes. When I was in electronics, there would have been a couple of six-foot racks holding that thing."
A scientist entered the room and introduced himself. He asked Eugene how old he was.
"Oh, let's see, fifty-nine or sixty?" Eugene replied. He was seventy- one years old.
The scientist started typing on the computer. Eugene smiled and pointed at it. "That is really something," he said. "You know, when I was in electronics there would have been a couple of six-foot racks holding that thing!"
The scientist was fifty-two-year-old Larry Squire, a professor who had spent the past three decades studying the neuroanatomy of memory. His specialty was exploring how the brain stores events. His work with Eugene, however, would soon open a new world to him and hundreds of other researchers who have reshaped our understanding of how habits function. Squire's studies would show that even someone who can't remember his own age or almost anything else can develop habits that seem inconceivably complex-until you realize that everyone relies on similar neurological processes every day. His and others' research would help reveal the subconscious mechanisms that impact the countless choices that seem as if they're the products of well- reasoned thought, but actually are influenced by urges most of us barely recognize or understand.
By the time Squire met Eugene, he had already been studying images of his brain for weeks. The scans indicated that almost all the damage within Eugene's skull was limited to a five-centimeter area near the center of his head. The virus had almost entirely destroyed his medial temporal lobe, a sliver of cells which scientists suspected was responsible for all sorts of cognitive tasks such as recall of the past and the regulation of some emotions. The completeness of the destruction didn't surprise Squire-viral encephalitis consumes tissue with a ruthless, almost surgical, precision. What shocked him was how familiar the images seemed.
Thirty years earlier, as a PhD student at MIT, Squire had worked alongside a group studying a man known as "H.M.," one of the most famous patients in medical history. When H.M.-his real name was Henry Molaison, but scientists shrouded his identity throughout his life-was seven years old, he was hit by a bicycle and landed hard on his head. Soon afterward, he developed seizures and started blacking out. At sixteen, he had his first grand mal seizure, the kind that affects the entire brain; soon, he was losing consciousness up to ten times a day.
By the time he turned twenty-seven, H.M. was desperate. Anticonvulsive drugs hadn't helped. He was smart, but couldn't hold a job. He still lived with his parents. H.M. wanted a normal existence. So he sought help from a physician whose tolerance for experimentation outweighed his fear of malpractice. Studies had suggested that an area of the brain called the hippocampus might play a role in seizures. When the doctor proposed cutting into H.M.'s head, lifting up the front portion of his brain, and, with a small straw, sucking out the hippocampus and some surrounding tissue from the interior of his skull, H.M. gave his consent.
The surgery occurred in 1953, and as H.M. healed, his seizures slowed. Almost immediately, however, it became clear that his brain had been radically altered. H.M. knew his name and that his mother was from Ireland. He could remember the 1929 stock market crash and news reports about the invasion of Normandy. But almost everything that came afterward-all the memories, experiences, and struggles from most of the decade before his surgery-had been erased. When a doctor began testing H.M.'s memory by showing him playing cards and lists of numbers, he discovered that H.M. couldn't retain any new information for more than twenty seconds or so.
From the day of his surgery until his death in 2008, every person H.M. met, every song he heard, every room he entered, was a completely fresh experience. His brain was frozen in time. Each day, he was befuddled by the fact that someone could change the television channel by pointing a black rectangle of plastic at the screen. He introduced himself to his doctors and nurses over and over, dozens of times each day.
"I loved learning about H.M., because memory seemed like such a tangible, exciting way to study the brain," Squire told me. "I grew up in Ohio, and I can remember, in first grade, my teacher handing everyone crayons, and I started mixing all the colors together to see if it would make black. Why have I kept that memory, but I can't remember what my teacher looked like? Why does my brain decide that one memory is more important than another?"
When Squire received the images of Eugene's brain, he marveled at how similar it seemed to H.M.'s. There were empty, walnut-sized chunks in the middle of both their heads. Eugene's memory-just like H.M.'s-had been removed.
As Squire began examining Eugene, though, he saw that this patient was different from H.M. in some profound ways. Whereas almost everyone knew within minutes of meeting H.M. that something was amiss, Eugene could carry on conversations and perform tasks that wouldn't alert a casual observer that anything was wrong. The effects of H.M.'s surgery had been so debilitating that he was institutionalized for the remainder of his life. Eugene, on the other hand, lived at home with his wife. H.M. couldn't really carry on conversations. Eugene, in contrast, had an amazing knack for guiding almost any discussion to a topic he was comfortable talking about at length, such as satellites- he had worked as a technician for an aerospace company-or the weather.
Squire started his exam of Eugene by asking him about his youth. Eugene talked about the town where he had grown up in central California, his time in the merchant marines, a trip he had taken to Australia as a young man. He could remember most of the events in his life that had occurred prior to about 1960. When Squire asked about later decades, Eugene politely changed the topic and said he had trouble recollecting some recent events.
Squire conducted a few intelligence tests and found that Eugene's intellect was still sharp for a man who couldn't remember the last three decades. What's more, Eugene still had all the habits he had formed in his youth, so whenever Squire gave him a cup of water or complimented him on a particularly detailed answer, Eugene would thank him and offer a compliment in return. Whenever someone entered the room, Eugene would introduce himself and ask about their day.
But when Squire asked Eugene to memorize a string of numbers or describe the hallway outside the laboratory's door, the doctor found his patient couldn't retain any new information for more than a minute or so. When someone showed Eugene photos of his grandchildren, he had no idea who they were. When Squire asked if he remembered getting sick, Eugene said he had no recollection of his illness or the hospital stay. In fact, Eugene almost never recalled that he was suffering from amnesia. His mental image of himself didn't include memory loss, and since he couldn't remember the injury, he couldn't conceive of anything being wrong.
In the months after meeting Eugene, Squire conducted experiments that tested the limits of his memory. By then, Eugene and Beverly had moved from Playa del Rey to San Diego to be closer to their daughter, and Squire often visited their home for his exams. One day, Squire asked Eugene to sketch a layout of his house. Eugene couldn't draw a rudimentary map showing where the kitchen or bedroom was located. "When you get out of bed in the morning, how do you leave your room?" Squire asked.
"You know," Eugene said, "I'm not really sure."
Squire took notes on his laptop, and as the scientist typed, Eugene became distracted. He glanced across the room and then stood up, walked into a hallway, and opened the door to the bathroom. A few minutes later, the toilet flushed, the faucet ran, and Eugene, wiping his hands on his pants, walked back into the living room and sat down again in his chair next to Squire. He waited patiently for the next question.
At the time, no one wondered how a man who couldn't draw a map of his home was able to find the bathroom without hesitation. But that question, and others like it, would eventually lead to a trail of discoveries that has transformed our understanding of habits' power. It would help spark a scientific revolution that today involves hundreds of researchers who are learning, for the first time, to understand all the habits that influence our lives.
As Eugene sat at the table, he looked at Squire's laptop.
"That's amazing," he said, gesturing at the computer. "You know, when I was in electronics, there would have been a couple of six-foot racks holding that thing."
Quais outros itens os consumidores compraram após visualizar este item?
Avaliação de clientes
Principais avaliações de clientes
"This is how new habits are created: by putting together a cue, a routine, and a reward, and then cultivating a craving that drives the loop."
"But to overpower the habit, we must recognise which craving is driving the behaviour. If we're not conscious of the anticipation, then we're like the shoppers who wander, as if drawn by an unseen force, into Cinnabon."
"Claude Hopkins wasn't selling beautiful teeth. He was selling a sensation. Once people craved that cool tingling - once they equated it with cleanliness - brushing became a habit."
"The same process that makes AA so effective - the power of a group to teach individuals how to believe - happens whenever people come together to help one another change. Belief is easier when it occurs within a community."
"Keystone habits start a process that, over time, transforms everything."
"Individuals have habits; groups have routines"
"More common is the circumstance where small wins are scattered... like miniature experiments that test implicit theories about resistance and opportunity and uncover both resources and barriers that were invisible before the situation was stirred up."
"Keystone habits transform us by creating cultures that make clear values that, in the heat of a difficult decision or moment of uncertainty, we might otherwise forget."
"What employees really needed were clear instructions about how to deal with inflection points - something similar to the Scottish patients' booklets: a routine for employees to follow when their willpower muscles went limp."
"The company identified specific rewards - a grateful customer, praise from a manager - that employees could look to as evidence of a job well done."
"Starbucks taught their employees hoe to handle moments of adversity by giving them willpower habit loops."
"This is how willpower becomes a habit: by choosing a certain behaviour ahead of time, and then following that routine when an inflection point arrives."
"If they feel like they have no autonomy, if they're just following orders, their willpower muscles get tired much faster."
"There are no organisations without institutional habits. There are only places where they are deliberately designed, and places where they are created without forethought, so they often grow from rivalries or fear."
"Much of firm behaviour is best understood as a reflection of general habits and strategic orientations coming from the firm's past, rather than the result of detailed survey of the remote twigs of the decision tree.
For instance, it might seem like the chief executive of a clothing company made the decision last year to feature a red cardigan on the catalog's cover by carefully reviewing sales and marketing data. But, in fact, what really happened was that his vice president constantly trolls websites devoted to Japanese fashion trends (where red was hip last spring), and the firm's marketers routinely ask their friends which colors are ''in'', and the company's executives, back from their annual trip to the Paris runway shows, reported hearing that designers at rival firms were using new magenta pigments. All these small inputs, the result of uncoordinated patterns among executives gossiping about competitors and talking to their friends, got mixed into the company's more formal research and development routines until a consensus emerged: Red will be popular this year. No one made a solitary, deliberate decision. Rather, dozens of habits, processes, and behaviours converged until it seemed like red was the inevitable choice."
"You never want a serious crisis to go to waste."
"A movement starts because of the social habits of friendship and the strong ties between close acquaintances. It grows because of the habits of a community, and the weak ties that hold neighbourhoods and clans together. And it endures because a movement's leader give participants new habits that create a fresh sense of identity and a feeling of ownership."
"Just as a piece of land has to be prepared beforehand if it is to nourish the seed, so the mind of the pupil has to be prepared in its habits if it is to enjoy and dislike the right things."
"However, to modify a habit, you must decide to change it. You must consciously accept the hard work of identifying the cues and rewards that drive the habits' routine, and find alternatives. You must know you have control and be self-conscious enough to use it."
"And once you know a habit exists, you have the responsibility to change it."
"Later, he would famously write that the will to believe is the most important ingredient in creating belief in change. And that one of the most important methods for creating that belief was habits.
Once we choose who we want to be, people grow to the way in which they have been exercised, just as a sheet of paper or a coat, once creased or folded, tends to fall forever afterward into the same identical folds."
"If you believe you can change - if you make it a habit - the change becomes real. This is the real power of habit: the insight that your habits are what you choose them to be."
"Water, he said, is the most apt analogy for how a habit works. Water hollows out for itself a channel, which grows broader and deeper; and, after having ceased to flow, it resumes, when it flows again, the path traced by itself before. You now know how to redirect that path. You now have the power to swim."
- Identify the routine
- Experiment with rewards
- Isolate the cue
- Have a plan"
"Most cravings are like this: obvious in retrospect, but incredibly hard to see when we are under their sway."
"By experimenting with different rewards, you can isolate what you are actually craving, which is essential in redesigning the habit."
"In other words, when environmental cues said 'we are friends' - a gentle tone, a smiling face - the witnesses were more likely to misremember what had occurred. Perhaps it was because, subconsciously, those friendship cues triggered a habit to please the questioner."
"Experiments had show that almost all habitual cues fit into one of five categories:
- Emotional State
- Other people
- Immediately preceding action"
"When I se CUE, I will do ROUTINE in order to get a REWARD."
"To re-engineer that formula, we need to begin making choices again. And the easiest way to do this, according to study after study, is to have a plan."
[Thoughts, in portuguese]
De fato, o livro explica o poder do hábito. Muito mais do que um costume, ou algo que fazemos com alguma frequência, o hábito é uma decisão que fazemos no início e depois torna-se automática.
Com diversos estudos e entrevistas, vemos como um hábito é armazenado no cérebro e porque alguém sem memória consegue andar pela casa e pela sua rua.
Como a mudança de um hábito provoca outras mudanças (hábito-chave) na vida de uma pessoa ou empresa. Muitas vezes a pessoa muda conscientemente a dieta apenas, e quando vê está se exercitando, trabalhando mais e até dormindo melhor.
No caso da Alcoa, focar obstinadamente em segurança de fato instaurou uma cultura de segurança, com mudança e a criação de diversos hábitos que por outros caminhos permitiram melhorar a eficiência, comunicação e etc dentro da empresa (assuntos antes delicadíssimos, por disputas entre sindicatos e diretorias). A empresa teve lucros sucessivos com as mudanças.
Porque a sensação de ardência após se escovar os dentes, apesar de desnecessária à limpeza, foi a diferença entre o sucesso ou fracasso da marca.
O hábito segue a fórmula: Deixa - Rotina - Recompensa. (E o desejo que alimenta o ciclo).
Entender o que é cada um para um hábito que quer mudar, ou criar, é fundamental. Simples, porém em muitos casos trabalhoso.
Dificilmente erradicamos um hábito. Mudar a rotina, mantendo-se a deixa e a recompensa, é mais viável.
Criar hábitos pode fazer um jogador ganhar tempo, e assim fez um técnico conseguir vitórias em times sem grandes esperanças.
O AA funciona por alguns motivos. Um deles é substituir uma rotina. Ter o apoio de amigos (comunidade). E acreditar em algo maior.
Laços fracos e fortes, são o que explicam um movimento como o dos direitos humanos nos EUA no caso da Rosa Park.
O poder de pequenas vitórias (e da visualização criativa) para Michael Phelps.
Como o Starbucks consegue ter funcionários consistentemente com bom atendimento.
Estudos da Target pra saber o que o cliente quer (antes mesmo dele). Predição e manipulação de hábitos.
O poder de uma crise - transformar orgãos em pratos principais.
A historia da Igreja Saddleback, e da delegação de grupos, da criação de identidades. A força da comunidade e dos laços fracos atraem os fieis. E nos encontros semanais na casa de alguém, são como um 'petri dish" para a criação de laços fortes. Assim a fé passa a ser um aspecto de suas vidas sociais e diárias.
Younger you are when you read and understand the message of this book, more successful you can be in any aspect of your life.
Quer ler mais avaliações sobre este item?
Avaliações mais recentes de clientes
Procure por itens similares por categoria