- Capa comum: 264 páginas
- Editora: Cambridge University Press; Edição: 2 (12 de setembro de 2014)
- Idioma: Inglês
- ISBN-10: 0521533384
- ISBN-13: 978-0521533386
- Dimensões do produto: 18,9 x 1,5 x 24,6 cm
- Peso de envio: 558 g
- Avaliação média: Seja o primeiro a avaliar este item
Sumer and the Sumerians (Inglês) Capa Comum – 11 set 2014
|Novo a partir de||Usado a partir de|
Livros em Oferta
Todos os dias, novos livros com desconto. Confira todos aqui.
Faça download dos Aplicativos de Leitura Kindle Gratuitos e comece a ler eBooks Kindle nos mais populares smartphones, tablets e computadores pessoais. Para enviar o link de download para seu smartphone por SMS, use o formato internacional sem espaços (Código Internacional+DDD+Número. Exemplo: +551199999999)
Para receber o link de download digite seu celular:
Confira todos os livros disponíveis e escolha o seu aqui
Detalhes do produto
Descrições do Produto
Descrição do Livro
Sobre o Autor
Avaliação de clientes
Avaliações mais úteis de consumidores na Amazon.com
The book covers the development of the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia during the period c 3800BC to 2000BC, with the following themes described in separate chapters:
(1) Rediscovery of the Ancient Near East: the physical environment
(2) History, chronology, and social organization
(3) Patterns of settlement and agriculture
(4) Town planning and temple architecture
(5) Public building and private housing
(6) Life, death, and the meaning of the universe
(7) Manufacturing industry, and trade
(8) Writing and the arts
(9) Conclusions - the development of Sumerian society
The book includes 8 maps and 80 illustrations most of which I have seen in the other books I have read on the subject, although I do believe them to be representative of the period The reference section lists the works of some 150 authors, which includes some of the works of the early archaeologists, as well as more recent works of the 1970s and 1980s, and there is also a short index.
For me the first three chapters are the most useful part of the book and provide a very good introduction to the subject.
Chapter 1 is an overview of the archaeological work done to about 1990 since the 19th century rediscovery of the major sites of the Sumerian civilization, and a general description of the nature of the land, the climate and ecological zones, and the trade routes.
Chapter 2 is a review of the basic periods of the development of the Sumerian civilization based on archaeological records, scientific methods of dating, and the historical record from tablets and inscriptions. Professor Crawford points out that while many of these are quite problematic and inconsistent with each other, they still provide much useful solid information
Chapter 3 is a very interesting summarization of the results of a number of geographical surveys performed by Robert Adams in the 1960s, which is covered in considerably more detail in the "The Early History of the Ancient Near East" by Hans J Nissen,
Chapters 4 - 8 provide detailed descriptions of the archaeological findings from the most significant Sumerian sites, with the concluding chapter discussing the outstanding characteristics which may have contributed to the development of the Sumerian civilization.
I liked the fact that Professor Crawford concentrates on the facts "on the ground" and is careful to explain why some proposals put forward by earlier and eminent archaeologists are difficult to accept due to inconsistent or insufficient evidence from which to draw sound conclusions. The book is well written and easy to read, but I must confess that I had to read it a second time in order to prepare this review, which shows that on the first time around I did not absorb as much of the material as I would have hoped.
For me, the weakest part is the chapter on "Writing and the arts" which concentrates more on the arts than on the development of writing which must be the most significant achievement and legacy of the Sumerian civilization. I was also surprised at her statement that there have been no drastic or fundamental changes in the weather patterns. It was my understanding that one of the major driving forces in the development of Sumerian civilization was the requirement to organize the development and maintenance of the irrigation channels as a result of the gradual drying up of the lower part of Mesopotamia during much of the 4th and 3rd millennia. I found that the maps were somewhat vague since they generally only included most important sites, and geographical features such as the Diyala and Hamrin valleys had to be deduced from the descriptions in the text. I also wonder if there have been any major new findings in the 15 years since 1991 when the book was first published.
In summary, I think that this is a solid introduction to the study of the Sumerian civilization, but I prefer "The Ancient Orient - An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East" by Wolfram von Soden as an introduction to the subject. I also prefer "The Early History of the Ancient Near East: 9000 - 2000BC" by Hans J Nissen, since that provides the background of the earlier period leading up to the development of the Sumerian civilization.
The author's evidence-based presentation isn't even a consistent privileging of epistemology over comprehensibility. When we come to politics ("It is clear that the priesthood too could exercise considerable control..." on page 31), it seems clear that this has to be based on written evidence, but there has been no preceding mention of this, much less a discussion of the evidence and its limitations. (For a book on a people most notable for the invention of writing and a civilization relying on it, this seems an astonishing choice.)
Another key duty of an author, though I admit that this one is less often honored, is to ensure that a map being discussed actually labels all the place names mentioned. This is particularly painful for map 2, where most of the discussion is of places not labelled, e.g., the Taurus and Zagros mountains, Jezirah ("the former" is too ambiguous to be helpful), and Samarra, among many others.